Metalworking is an essential part of any construction project. Metals are generally known for their strength and are therefore used in reinforcing a number of structures. Similarly, based on the anticipated weight load, metals may be purely used as well. You can also use metals in repairing and building objects around the house or while fixing appliances. Therefore, it is important for metalworkers to know the basics of metalworking. It basically involves cutting, marking, drilling, filing, joining as well as cutting of internal and external threads. Working with metals isn’t very difficult, however, as would woodworking, it requires certain skills and some specialized tools.
Fortunately, these instruments are inexpensive for the most part and can easily be acquired at any hardware store on short notice. Therefore, the crux of the matter is that much of metalworking equipment is the basic one.
Recall that just like any professional field that involves construction, the tools serve as the very core around which such profession revolves. In order to determine which of the two fit the bill, you would easily agree that it has to be those without which metalworking is practically impossible.
Let’s just cut to the chase, shall we? Here are the 15 essential tools for aspiring top-notch metal workers:
An anvil is basically the signature piece of any metalworker. It is usually made out of a large block of iron, either forged steel or wrought iron but in rare cases, cast iron. It usually has a flat, rectangular top surface used for working metal which is referred to as the face.
The face is usually made of hardened steel and can be a separate piece from the anvil, however, it would be welded to the top of the anvil body. Anvils usually come in very large sizes because a larger surface implies a larger amount of inertia.
This would, in turn, cause a more efficient transfer of energy from the stringing tools to the workpiece. More often than not, the anvil is used as a forging tool and used to be very prominent before the development of modern welding technology. However, it is still very much in use due to the iconic position that it occupies in the metalworking sphere.
Finishing is a very important part of metalworking since it determines what your eventual finished product. A sander is basically a power tool that you can use for smoothing surfaces by abrasion with sandpaper. They usually come with a mechanism that allows for attachment of sandpaper. As well as another that serves to move the sandpapers very speedily. All of these are contained within a housing with a handle or means for attachment to a workbench.
For metalworking, the sanders are usually powered by compressed air and are specially designed for that purpose. There is a number of other sanders you can use for various purposes. And most of them usually come with attachments to power tools and electric drills.
In order to get the best-finished product, sanders should be a major part of your equipment.
3. Metal Lathe
The metal lathe or metalworking lathe is specifically designed for working on or machining relatively hard materials. It usually consists of a number of lathes with slight differences but for the same purpose.
From the onset, lathes have functioned in machining metals, however, they are getting used with plastics and other materials. This is mainly due to the inherent versatility that makes them significant in a range of operation and with various materials.
Going by machining terms, they may either be referred to as lathes or a bit more specifically as turret lathe or toolroom lathe. You can use them to remove material from a revolving workpiece through the linear movement of several cutting tools such as the drill and tool bits.
4. Press Brake
A press brake is simply a machine tool that you can use in bending plate and sheet materials. From these materials, metals are the most common. The formed bends are already predetermined by the position of the punch and die.
Based on the source of the bending force, the press brake has some divisions. For the mechanical form, the vertical movement of the ram has a crank mechanism serving as its driver. This mechanism is in turn powered by the flywheel.
For the pneumatic press brakes, air pressure is the driving force for the ram. In the case of the hydraulic brake press, the ram is driven by two synchronized hydraulic cylinder.
Finally, servo-electric brakes exert force on the ram and cause it to move vertically by action of the service motor moving the belt drive or pushing the ball screw.
A shaper is among one of the most important tools that any metalworker needs in his line of work. You can easily compare it to a lathe since it also requires linear relative motion between a single-point cutting tool and the workpiece to machine a linear toolpath.
The major difference is that instead of being helical, its cut is archetypally linear. A metalworking shaper usually bears a measure of resemblance to a metalworking planer. But instead of the workpiece moving beneath the cutter, the cutter rides on a ram which motion is relative to a stationary workpiece.
The ram’s motion is brought about by a mechanical crank within the column. Although, in recent times, hydraulically driven shapers have become a lot more common. Also, when you add axes to the motion of a shaper, you can achieve helical toolpaths as is done in helical planning.
6. Arbor Press
An arbor press has a characteristic small size and is operated by hand. You can use it for performing small or minor tasks like riveting, installing, configuration, staking, and removal of bearings alongside other press fit work.
Depending on the task to be carried out, there can be an attachment of inserters, punches, alongside other dies or tools which would be useful to the end of the ram. The rating of arbor presses is done on the basis of the maximum load that they can apply.
The most common press types usually have leverage of about 1-5 tons. It’s due to the application of a force to the wheel or lever arm. Arbor presses may be mounted on a pedestal, a wall or more commonly, on a workbench.
The base is usually made of cast metal with the ram that may be round or square providing the force. The mechanism for driving the ram consists of a pinion and rack setup designed to enhance the mechanical advantage.
The forces that are usually generated by either hydraulic or manual input will higher force arbor presses coming with a reduction in gear.
Hammers are the most basic tools that any metal worker, irrespective of skill level, must have. A hammer consists of three main parts. The first is the head that is attached to the handle and does the main task of hitting.
Next is the handle that functions as a fulcrum and you can manipulate it into providing more precision. The last thing is a back part that usually consists of a claw, hook or pein. Hammers come in different sizes, structures, and shapes designed for various purposes and utility.
The modern hammer is typically made out of steel that has been treated in heat to ensure its hardness. They play a major role in shaping, driving, and breaking. As well as a number including mallets, ball-peen hammers, and sledgehammers among others.
However, the metalworking hammer is usually tweaked a bit to make it suitable. Steam hammers and powered hammers for delivering forces that are beyond the human arm’s capacity.
8. Forming Bags
Forming bags are usually made out of high-quality leather or canvas and are sewn very tightly. In terms of filling, they can be filled with lead shot or sand. The main function of forming bags is that they allow you to “shrink” the metal without having to mark it provided that it is used correctly.
They come in different sizes but the medium and large bags are mainly used. More often than not, they come with double-sewn seams to prevent leakages. Filler holes come with a reusable rivet that can be unplugged and replugged whenever you want to top up filter material or change it entirely.
Of the different shapes in which they come in, the square shape is a lot easier to hang on to, it provides more contours for shaping than round bags and it also gives the best form of support.
9. Files and Rasps
A file is basically a finishing tool, it is used for smoothing rough edges or surfaces. A rasp, on the other hand, is a special form of a file, it is simply the coarse form of a file and is used for coarsely shaping metals and other materials.
It is basically a hand tool and it comes as either a tapered rectangular, half-round or a round bar of hardened steel with individually cut teeth which are very distinct. It is often common to find a narrow, pointed tang at one end, a handle may be fitted to this tang as well.
The rough edges which the rasp leaves behind are usually smoothed over with smoother and finer tools such as the file.
A scriber is a hand tool that is used in metalworking for marking lines on workpieces before they proceed to the machining phase. The process of making use of this tool is referred to as scribing and simply consists of a part of the marking out process.
Instead of using ink lines or pencils whose marks are hard to see, can easily be erased and are generally inaccurate due to their wide mark, the scriber is used. Marks left by a scriber are semi-permanent and very thin, making it just perfect for metalworking.
Blue marking is more commonly used on non-coated workpieces in order to increase the mark lines contrast. A scriber is a simple rod with a tip made out of cast steel that has been tempered and hardened.
The point is smoothed until it makes an angle of up to 30 or 40 degrees. Similarly, some scribers come with a scribing point at both ends.
11. Vernier Caliper
Vernier caliper is a piece of measuring equipment that is used to get precise measurements of linear dimensions. It comes in pretty handy when parameters like the diameter of round objects like cylinders are being determined.
This is due to its design, it comes with measuring jaws that can be placed on either side of the circumference. The vernier caliper has two scales; the fixed main scale and the moving vernier scale.
The main scale’s graduation is usually either in tenths of an inch or millimeters. The vernier scale, on the other hand, allows for more precise measurements to be taken, typically to the nearest 0.02mm or 0.001 inches as against a standard meter rule which measures to the nearest 1mm or 0.25 inch.
Most vernier calipers measure in either metric or imperial measurements, however, a few of them measure in both.
12. Soldering Iron
A soldering iron is a hand tool that is used in soldering metal pieces together. It operates simply by supplying heat to melt the solder which then flows into the joint between two workpieces and joins them together.
A soldering iron usually consists of an insulated handle and a heated metal tip. The heat is generated as a result of a flow of electric current which is supplied via battery cables or an electric cord through a resistive heating element.
For irons which come cordless, they can be heated by combustion of gas which is stored in a small tank, making use of a catalytic heater instead of a flame.
Soldering irons are often used for repairs, installation and very limited production projects in electronics assembly. For high volume production, other soldering methods suited to commercial production is used. Large iron may also be used for soldering joints in sheet metal objects.
13. Hack Saw
The hacksaw is specially designed for cutting metal and this can be noted from its fine teeth. Its counterpart in the woodworking sphere is the bow saw, this clearly shows that the hacksaw is specialized for metalworking.
Most hacksaws are hand-operated and come with a C-shaped frame which holds a blade very tensely. This type usually has a handle, often a pistol grip with pins for attachment of a disposable blade.
The frames may be adjusted to accommodate different blade sizes will a screw or some other mechanism for holding the thin blade under tension. As is typical with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth either facing toward or away from the handle.
This results in a cutting action on either the pull or push stroke. When the hacksaw is being used under normal circumstances, that is, with the saw cutting vertically downwards while the workpiece is held down by a bench vise, the blades are usually set to face forward.
14. Engineer’s Vise
The engineer’s vise is also known as the machinist’s vise or metalworking vise. Its main functions are holding metal when cutting or filing as well as clamping. It is either made out of cast steel or malleable cast iron, but in most cases, cast iron.
For most of the heavy-duty vises available, they are made out of 55,000 psi cast steel or 65,000 psi ductile iron. Similarly, some vises may have a cast iron body with a steel channel bar. The reason that cast iron is used more often because it is composed of about 30,000 psi grey iron which is well known for being strong, rigid, and relatively cheap.
The jaws of the engineer’s vise are often separate and replaceable with a serrated or diamond teeth engraving. In the light of working delicate materials, soft jaw covers made out of copper, aluminum or plastic may be used.
The metalworking vise is usually bolted to the top surface of a workbench with the face of the fixed jaws inclined forward.
You can primarily use the drill for driving fasteners or for making round holes. It is usually fitted with a bit, usually a driver or a drill and secured by a chuck. In certain cases, powered drills may come with a hammer function.
Drills usually differ on the basis of power, speed, and size and characteristically get their power source electrically. However, in recent times, there has been a reduction in the use of hand-operated types and an increase in the use of cordless battery-powered ones.
There is a wide range of applications including woodworking, machine tool fabrication, as well as utility and construction projects.
In summary, metalworking just like any field has tools that are peculiar to operations carried out. As an aspiring top-notch metal worker, the 15 tools from this article are essential and you would likely need them for most of your projects.
Therefore, you should study the tools closely and get familiar with them. Over time, you would definitely become as good as you want to be.